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Research
Research on the relationship between the ability to control binocular vision and quality of life has a long and diverse history. In this section we cite relatively recent work by Gemstone researchers as well as others that specifically relates to visual skills (dynamic accommodative, vergence, and tracking skills) and how they relate to academic performance, on-the-job comfort and productivity, athletic performance, and eye–brain health in general.

Publications by Gemstone

  • Larimer JO, Gille J, Powers MK, Liu H-C. Hyperacuity on high-resolution and very high resolution displays. In Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Jose, CA, 2004.
  • Powers MK, Larimer JO, Gille J, Liu H-C. Reading performance with large fonts on high-resolution displays. In Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Jose, CA, 2004.
  • Powers MK. Improving visual skills. A new internet application. J Modern Optics 2006; 53:1313-1323. A description of the internet visual skills training program. Contains data from a child diagnosed with autism.
  • Grisham DG, Powers MK, Riles PR. Visual skills of poor readers in high
    school. Optometry, 2007; 78:542-549. Shows that 50% or more of students in high school who read 2 grade levels or more below expected have visual skills that are below clinically accepted norms.
  • Powers MK, Grisham DG, Riles PR. Saccadic tracking skills of poor readers in high school, Optometry, 2008; 79:228-234.
    Students in high school who read 2 grade levels or more below expected tend to have problems with oculomotor control, leading to difficulty in tracking their eyes while reading.
  • Powers MK, Grisham JD, Wurm JK, Wurm WC. Improving visual skills II: Remote assessment via Internet. Optometry, 2009; in press.
    An internet computer program can be used to identify elementary school-age children who have visual skill problems.

Visual Skills Training Improves Visual Skill Level

  • Ciuffreda KJ. The scientific basis for and efficacy of optometric vision therapy in nonstrabismic accommodative and vergence disorders. Optometry 2002; 73:735-62.
    Cooper J, Selenow A, Ciuffreda K, Feldman J, Faverty J, Hokodas. Reduction of asthenopia in patients with convergence insufficiency following fusional vergence training. Am J Opt Physl Opt 1983; 60:982-89.
    Cooper J, Feldman JM, Selenow A, Fair R, Bucciero F, MacDonald D, Levy M. Reduction of asthenopia following accommodative facility training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987; 64:30-436.
  • Cooper J. Computerized vision therapy for home and office treatment of accommodative & vergence disorders, & amblyopia. J Behav Optom 2007;18:88-93
  • Scheiman M, Mitchell GL, Cotter S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of treatment for convergence insufficiency in children. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:14-22.

Academic Performance and Visual Skills

  • Borsting EJ, Rouse, MW, Mitchell GL, Cotter SA, et al. Validity and reliability of the revised convergence insufficiency symptom survey in children aged 9 to 18 years. Optom Vis Sci 2003; 80:832-838
  • Goldstand S, Koslowe KC, Parush S. Vision, visual-information processing, and academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren: A more significant relationship than we thought? Amer J Occup Therapy 2005; 59:377-89
  • Grisham JD, Sheppard MM, Tran WU. Visual symptoms and reading performance. Optom Vis Sci 1993; 70:384-91.
  • Kulp MT, Schmidt PP. Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance: A literature review. Optom Vis Sci 1996; 73:283-92.
  • Letourneau JE, Ducic S. Prevalence of convergence insufficiency among elementary school children. Can J Optom 1988; 50:194-7.
  • Rouse MW, Borsting E, Hyman L, et al. Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. Optom Vis Sci 1999; 76:643-49.
  • Scheiman MM, Rouse MW. Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems. Mosby, 1994.
  • Simons HD, Gassler PA. Vision anomalies and reading skill: A meta-analysis of the literature. Am J Optom Phyiol Opt. 1988; 56:893-904.
  • Simons HD, Grisham JD. Binocular anomalies and reading problems. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1987; 58:578-587.
    Talcott J, Witton C, McLean M, Hansen P, Rees A, Green G, Stein J. Dynamic sensory sensitivity predicts children’s word decoding skills: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 2000; 97: 2952-2957.

Improving visual skills improves reading performance

  • Atzmon D, Nemet P, Ishay A, Karni E. A randomized prospective masked and matched comparative study of orthoptic treatment versus conventional reading tutoring treatment for reading disabilities in 62 children. Binoc Vision and Eye Muscle Surgery Qtrly 1993; 8:91-106.
  • Bonilla-Warford N, Allison C. A review of the efficacy of oculomotor vision therapy on improving reading skills. J Optom Vision Devel 2004; 35:108-15.
  • Goss DA, Downing DB, Lowther AH, Horner DG, et al. The effect of HTS vision therapy conducted in a school setting on reading skills in third and fourth grade students. Optom Vis Dev 2007; 38:27-32.

Computer Use and Visual Skills

Computer use is associated with eye symptoms

  • Hayes JR, Sheedy J, Stelmack J, Heaney C. Computer use, symptoms, and quality of life. Optom & Vis Sci. 2007 84(8): E738-E755.



Presentations at Scientific Meetings by Gemstone:

  • Powers MK, Grisham JD, Riles P: Visual skills in under-performing high school students. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001;42:S386.
  • Powers MK, Grisham JD, Riles P: Visual skills and reading scores. Presented at the College of Optometrists in Visual Development, St. Louis, Missouri, October 2001.
  • Grisham JD, Powers MK, Riles P: Reading scores improve after computerized visual skills training for under-performing high school students. Presented at the American Academy of Optometry meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 2001.
  • Powers MK, Grisham JD, Riles P: Visual skills and reading performance. Presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2002.
  • Grisham JD, Powers MK, Riles P: Improvements in reading performance after computerized visual skills training in school. Presented at the American Optometric Association, New Orleans, June 2002.
  • Powers MK, Grisham JD: Effectiveness of internet-based visual skills training. Presented at the College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, October 2002.
  • Powers MK, Grisham JD: Visual skills: Comparison between school and clinical data. Presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.
  • Powers MK, Larimer J, Gille J: High Resolution and Reading Performance, United States Display Consortium, Alexandria, Virginia, November 2003.
  • Powers MK, Larimer J, Gille J: Reading performance on high-resolution screens: Large fonts. SPIE, San Jose, January 2004.
  • Powers MK, Morita Y: Visual skills in Japan and US clinic and schools. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2004.
  • Powers MK, Larimer J, Gille J: Reading performance on high resolution screens: Effect of font size and comparison to print. SID, Seattle, WA, May 2004.
  • Powers MK, Landis C: Autism and computer orthoptics: a case study. College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Cancun, Mexico, October 2004.
  • Powers MK, Hoffman R, Grisham, D: Online computer orthoptics in juvenile offender facilities. College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Cancun, Mexico, October 2004.
  • Morita Y, Toshimitsu A, Shima M, Powers MK: Measurement of visual skills in young adults. International Orthoptics Congress, Melbourne, Australia, November 2004.
  • Powers MK, Morita Y: Visual Skills: Remote vs. on-site assessment. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2005.
  • Powers MK: Fusion training improves visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optical Society of America Fall Meeting, Tucson, AZ, October 2005.
  • Powers MK: Long-term follow-up of internet orthoptics training. College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Orlando, Florida, November 2005.
  • Powers MK, Grisham D: Prevalence of visual skill dysfunctions in poor readers in high school. American Academy of Optometry, San Diego, California, December 2005.
  • Powers MK, Morita Y, Hoffman RA: Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS): Results of administration to students in middle school, high school and juvenile offender facilities. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2006.
  • Hoffman RA, Morita Y, Miner GL, Powers MK: Visual skills and reading performance 1 year after visual skills training in school. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2006.
  • Morita Y, Hamada T, Powers MK: Visual skills training reduces vision discomfort in adult subjects. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2006.
  • Powers MK, Wurm J, Wurm W: Computer orthoptic training: Success in Wisconsin Lutheran schools. Accepted for presentation at College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Phoenix, AZ, November 2006.
  • Powers MK, Grisham DG: Comparison of results of computer orthoptic training between clinic and school. Presented at the American Academy of Optometry, Denver CO, December 2006.
  • Powers MK, Hoffman RA, Morita Y: Improvement in saccadic tracking performance in older individuals following computer orthoptic training. Accepted for presentation at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, May 2007.
  • Day G, Powers MK: Internet-based treatment of binocular vision disorders in post-refractive surgery patients. College of Optometrists in Vision Development, St. Petersburg, FL, October 2007.
  • Faktorovich E, Powers MK, Kuznetsova J, Day G: Prevalence and Pre-Operative Characteristics of Post-Lasik Patients with Binocular Vision Disorders. American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery for their annual meeting in Chicago, April 2008.
  • Powers MK, Faktorovich E, Day G, Libman I: Occupational characteristics of patients with and without binocular vision disorders following LASIK surgery. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, May 2008.
  • Faktorovich E, Powers MK: Predicting and resolving binocular vision disorders post- LASIK. Accepted for presentation at the American Academy of Ophthalmology, Atlanta, November 2008.